keskiviikko 23. heinäkuuta 2014

Pyhä Augustinus ja donatolaisuus (2)

Onhan näiden jälkeen paljon vettä virrannut Medjerdassa. Augustinuksen kirjoituksia donatolaisuudesta on kammattu ja suurennuslasin kanssa tutkittu ja paljon niistä kirjoitettu sekä Kristuksen kirkon kannalta virallista asiaa että monenlaista muuta - ja yhä tänään kirjoitetaan.

Anglosaksisen patristiikan kulmakivi
Augustinuksen donatiolaisuutta koskevat tekstit on julkaistu englanninkielellä valtavassa teoksessa

A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church.
Edited by Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., Professor in the Union Theological Seminary, New York,
In connection with a number of patristic scholars of Europe and America.

St. Augustin:
The writings against the Manichæans and against the Donatists
T&T Clark

WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company
Grand Rapids, Michigan
1886, 1900

Tämä kirkkoisien kirjoitusten englanninkielinen kokoelma on kuvattu lyhyesti wikipediassa.

Neljännen osan toinen luku on otsikoitu An Analysis of Augustin's Writings against the Donatists Otan siitä tähän muutamia poimintoja johdantona luvun 2 sisältämään yksityiskohtaiseen analyysiin.

Teksti on pitkä ja perusteellinen. Siitä huolimatta kirjoittaja aloittaa nöyrään sävyyn 
The object of this chapter is to present a rudimentary outline and summary of all that Augustin penned or spoke against those traditional North African Christians whom he was pleased to regard as schismatics.
Aikakautnesa loisteliaalla englannilla kirjoittaja kuvaa sitten Augustinuksen hienostunutta ja moniulotteista kirjoitustyyliä
His activity begins with his ordination to the presbyterate, a time marked in Donatist annals by the Maximianist separation, and increases as he becomes bishop. From about 392 to near the close of his life, pen and voice were seldom still. In all those years the outlinear thoughts grew in breadth and depth; endless are the forms in which his few and radical conceptions manifest themselves; never does he lose sight of the popular effect, so that he knows when to relax his love of word-play and delight in mysterious inductions, in order to make the chief themes plain to the dullest mind.

Donatiolaisuuden päävastustaja
How varied the channels through which he struggled for the mastery of his idea of the Church! In the pulpit he made Donatism the occasion of many a polemic, many an appeal; in his correspondence it was an ever-recurrent topic; it was the staple of many a tract and book; verse was not shunned to destroy its fashionableness and popularity; commentaries and manuals for the meditative hour or for the training of the theological student, abounded in warnings against its aggressiveness; no opportunity for debate or conference or epistolary discussion was left unimproved. And no wonder: it was a living thing, of the street, of the market, of the social circle, of the home; it threatened at times to obliterate the transmarine view of the church from North Africa; its spirit of political independence and plea for religious liberty went to the hearts of a people, more and more restive under the decline of the Empire.

The literary creations of Donatism had been somewhat more fertile than that of Cæcilianism. We must not belittle Donatus the Great, Parmenian, Petilian, Gaudentius, and certainly the eminence of Tychonius is confessed by Augustin himself. Up to this time Optatus of Milevis had been the only forcible opponent. But against the great Augustin whom could they bring into the field? And against the great Augustin, backed by the energy of the State, there was little hope of fairness. Augustin found a new and weighty school. Donatism, with its impossible ideal, already began to despise the culture which seemed to help its defeat and withdrew into its sensitive shell after the manner of all puristic tendencies under persecution.

Kaksi eri hyökkäyslinjaa valittavana, tuloksena oppi kirkosta ja sakramenteista
The two prevalent lines of attack are the historical on the origin of the schism, which involved the dissection of the documents, and the doctrinal, or the discussion of the true notes of the Church from the basis of the Scriptures. This latter Augustin preferred, because final; he bowed to no patristic. One or the other or both may be traced in all his works, great or small, against them. Out of so protracted a controversy there grew up a symmetrical and comprehensive theory of the Church and the Sacraments on either side.

Kolme hyökkäyskohtaa donatolaisuudessa
Of three fundamental points of Donatism, as perpetuated practices of North Africa, rebaptism and the encouragement of a martyr spirit with its attendant feasts, the continuance of the Seniores in the government of the Church, we find Augustin aiming mainly at the overthrow of the first two. One of his earliest letters suggests to his bishop some means for checking the drunkenness and great excess connected with the Natalitia.

Näiden valmistelun jälkeen Osan IV Luku 2 siirtyy Augustinuksen alkuperäisen aineiston käsittelyyn ja sisältää runsaasti historiallista tietoa ja Viktorian ajan upealla englannilla kirjoitettuja hienostuneita kommentteja, joiden sisältö on paikoin yllättävänkin rajua.

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